Tag Archives: dimension

A non complete normed vector space

Consider a real normed vector space \(V\). \(V\) is called complete if every Cauchy sequence in \(V\) converges in \(V\). A complete normed vector space is also called a Banach space.

A finite dimensional vector space is complete. This is a consequence of a theorem stating that all norms on finite dimensional vector spaces are equivalent.

There are many examples of Banach spaces with infinite dimension like \((\ell_p, \Vert \cdot \Vert_p)\) the space of real sequences endowed with the norm \(\displaystyle \Vert x \Vert_p = \left( \sum_{i=1}^\infty \vert x_i \vert^p \right)^{1/p}\) for \(p \ge 1\), the space \((C(X), \Vert \cdot \Vert)\) of real continuous functions on a compact Hausdorff space \(X\) endowed with the norm \(\displaystyle \Vert f \Vert = \sup\limits_{x \in X} \vert f(x) \vert\) or the Lebesgue space \((L^1(\mathbb R), \Vert \cdot \Vert_1)\) of Lebesgue real integrable functions endowed with the norm \(\displaystyle \Vert f \Vert = \int_{\mathbb R} \vert f(x) \vert \ dx\).

Let’s give an example of a non complete normed vector space. Let \((P, \Vert \cdot \Vert_\infty)\) be the normed vector space of real polynomials endowed with the norm \(\displaystyle \Vert p \Vert_\infty = \sup\limits_{x \in [0,1]} \vert p(x) \vert\). Consider the sequence of polynomials \((p_n)\) defined by
\[p_n(x) = 1 + \frac{x}{2} + \frac{x^2}{4} + \cdots + \frac{x^n}{2^n} = \sum_{k=0}^{n} \frac{x^k}{2^k}.\] For \(m < n \) and \(x \in [0,1]\), we have \[\vert p_n(x) - p_m(x) \vert = \left\vert \sum_{i=m+1}^n \frac{x^i}{2^i} \right\vert \le \sum_{i=m+1}^n \frac{1}{2^i} \le \frac{1}{2^m}\] which proves that \((p_n)\) is a Cauchy sequence. Also for \(x \in [0,1]\) \[ \lim\limits_{n \to \infty} p_n(x) = p(x) \text{ where } p(x) = \frac{1}{1 - \frac{x}{2}}.\] As uniform converge implies pointwise convergence, if \((p_n)\) was convergent in \(P\), it would be towards \(p\). But \(p\) is not a polynomial function as none of its \(n\)th-derivative always vanishes. Hence \((p_n)\) is a Cauchy sequence that doesn't converge in \((P, \Vert \cdot \Vert_\infty)\), proving as desired that this normed vector space is not complete. More generally, a normed vector space with countable dimension is never complete. This can be proven using Baire category theorem which states that a non-empty complete metric space is not the countable union of nowhere-dense closed sets.

A non-compact closed ball

Consider a normed vector space \((X, \Vert \cdot \Vert)\). If \(X\) is finite-dimensional, then a subset \(Y \subset X\) is compact if and only if it is closed and bounded. In particular a closed ball \(B_r[a] = \{x \in X \, ; \, \Vert x – a \Vert \le r\}\) is always compact if \(X\) is finite-dimensional.

What about infinite-dimensional spaces?

The space \(A=C([0,1],\mathbb R)\)

Consider the space \(A=C([0,1],\mathbb R)\) of the real continuous functions defined on the interval \([0,1]\) endowed with the sup norm:
\[\Vert f \Vert = \sup\limits_{x \in [0,1]} \vert f(x) \vert\]
Is the closed unit ball \(B_1[0]\) compact? The answer is negative and we provide two proofs.

The first one is based on open covers. For \(n \ge 1\), we denote by \(f_n\) the piecewise linear map defined by \[
f_n(0)=f_n(\frac{1}{2^n}-\frac{1}{2^{n+2}})=0 \\
f_n(\frac{1}{2^n})=1 \\
\end{cases}\] All the \(f_n\) belong to \(B_1[0]\). Moreover for \(1 \le n < m\) we have \(\frac{1}{2^n}+\frac{1}{2^{n+2}} < \frac{1}{2^m}-\frac{1}{2^{m+2}}\). Hence the supports of the \(f_n\) are disjoint and \(\Vert f_n – f_m \Vert = 1\).

Now consider the open cover \(\mathcal U=\{B_{\frac{1}{2}}(x) \, ; \, x \in B_1[0]\}\). For \(x \in B_1[0]\}\) and \(u,v \in B_{\frac{1}{2}}(x)\), \(\Vert u -v \Vert < 1\). Therefore, each \(B_{\frac{1}{2}}(x)\) contains at most one \(f_n\) and a finite subcover of \(\mathcal U\) will contain only a finite number of \(f_n\) proving that \(A\) is not compact.

Second proof based on convergent subsequence. As \(A\) is a metric space, it is enough to prove that \(A\) is not sequentially compact. Consider the sequence of functions \(g_n : x \mapsto x^n\). The sequence is bounded as for all \(n \in \mathbb N\), \(\Vert g_n \Vert = 1\). If \((g_n)\) would have a convergent subsequence, the subsequence would converge pointwise to the function equal to \(0\) on \([0,1)\) and to \(1\) at \(1\). As this function is not continuous, \((g_n)\) cannot have a subsequence converging to a map \(g \in A\).

Riesz’s theorem

The non-compactness of \(A=C([0,1],\mathbb R)\) is not so strange. Based on Riesz’s lemma one can show that the unit ball of an infinite-dimensional normed space \(X\) is never compact. This is sometimes known as the Riesz’s theorem.

The non-compactness of \(A=C([0,1],\mathbb R)\) is just standard for infinite-dimensional normed vector spaces!

A homeomorphism of the unit ball having no fixed point

Let’s recall Brouwer fixed-point theorem.

Theorem (Brouwer): Every continuous function from a convex compact subset \(K\) of a Euclidean space to \(K\) itself has a fixed point.

We here describe an example of a homeomorphism of the unit ball of a Hilbert space having no fixed point. Let \(E\) be a separable Hilbert space with \((e_n)_{n \in \mathbb{Z}}\) as a Hilbert basis. \(B\) and \(S\) are respectively \(E\) closed unit ball and unit sphere.

There is a unique linear map \(u : E \to E\) for which \(u(e_n)=e_{n+1}\) for all \(n \in \mathbb{Z}\). For \(x = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \xi_n e_n \in E\) we have \(u(x)= \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \xi_n e_{n+1}\). \(u\) is isometric as \[\Vert u(x) \Vert^2 = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \vert \xi_n \vert^2 = \Vert x \Vert^2\] hence one-to-one. \(u\) is also onto as for \(x = \sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \xi_n e_n \in E\), \(\sum_{n \in \mathbb{Z}} \xi_n e_{n-1} \in E\) is an inverse image of \(x\). Finally \(u\) is an homeomorphism. Continue reading A homeomorphism of the unit ball having no fixed point

A solution of a differential equation not exploding in finite time

In this post, I mention that Peano existence theorem is valid for finite dimensional vector spaces, but not for Banach spaces of infinite dimension. I highlight here a second property of ordinary differential equations which is valid for finite dimensional vector spaces but not for infinite dimensional Banach spaces. Continue reading A solution of a differential equation not exploding in finite time

An unbounded convex not containing a ray

We consider a normed vector space \(E\) over the field of the reals \(\mathbb{R}\) and a convex subset \(C \subset E\).

We suppose that \(0 \in C\) and that \(C\) is unbounded, i.e. there exists points in \(C\) at distance as big as we wish from \(0\).

The following question arises: “does \(C\) contains a ray?”. It turns out that the answer depends on the dimension of the space \(E\). If \(E\) is of finite dimension, then \(C\) always contains a ray, while if \(E\) is of infinite dimension \(C\) may not contain a ray. Continue reading An unbounded convex not containing a ray

A compact whose convex hull is not compact

We consider a topological vector space \(E\) over the field of the reals \(\mathbb{R}\). The convex hull of a subset \(X \subset E\) is the smallest convex set that contains \(X\).

The convex hull may also be defined as the intersection of all convex sets containing X or as the set of all convex combinations of points in X.

The convex hull of \(X\) is written as \(\mbox{Conv}(X)\). Continue reading A compact whose convex hull is not compact