On limit at infinity of functions and their derivatives

We consider continuously differentiable real functions defined on \((0,\infty)\) and the limits \[
\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) \text{ and } \lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f^\prime(x).\]

A map \(f\) such that \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) = \infty\) and \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f^\prime(x) = 0\)

Consider the map \(f : x \mapsto \sqrt{x}\). It is clear that \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f(x) = \infty\). As \(f^\prime(x) = \frac{1}{2 \sqrt{x}}\), we have as announced \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} f^\prime(x) = 0\)

A bounded map \(g\) having no limit at infinity such that \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} g^\prime(x) = 0\)

One idea is to take an oscillating map whose wavelength is increasing to \(\infty\). Let’s take the map \(g : x \mapsto \cos \sqrt{x}\). \(g\) doesn’t have a limit at \(\infty\) as for \(n \in \mathbb N\), we have \(g(n^2 \pi^2) = \cos n \pi = (-1)^n\). However, the derivative of \(g\) is \[
g^\prime(x) = – \frac{\sin \sqrt{x}}{2 \sqrt{x}},\] and as \(\vert g^\prime(x) \vert \le \frac{1}{2 \sqrt{x}}\) for all \(x \in (0,\infty)\), we have \(\lim\limits_{x \to \infty} g^\prime(x) = 0\).

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